Quantum Computing Paradigm has recently encountered a game-changing approach (albeit theoretical). It averts many of the common complications present in current quantum computers. The tactic implements an algorithm. It helps natural quantum interactions for processing real-world issues quicker than legacy and gate-based quantum computers.
But first, let us understand a bit about Quantum Computing Paradigm. This will help us understand how New Quantum Computing works today.
Understanding Quantum Computing Paradigm
Quantum Computing Paradigm explores the complex behavior observed by scientists for years. They have been checking the smallest particles of nature (atoms, electrons, photons). On this scale, the classical laws of physics do not apply and the quantum rules are now working in full effect.
However, researchers don’t understand everything about the quantum world. But what they do know is that quantum particles have a lot of potential, in holding and processing monumental amounts of information.
When those particles are brought under control successfully in a quantum computer, they can trigger an explosion of computing power. This can advance innovation phenomenally in numerous fields requiring complex calculations in the following areas:
- Financial optimization.
- Climate modeling.
- Discovery of life-saving medicinal drugs.
- Modernizing logistics.
Quantum computers come in various shapes and sizes. Then again, they are built on the same engineering principle. There, a quantum processor is hosted which allows isolation of quantum particles, allowing engineers to manipulate them.
The nature of these quantum particles and their controlling methods differ from one approach to another. Some procedures require the processor to be cooled down to sub-zero temperatures. Other procedures require the use of lasers to work on quantum particles.
Yet they all share the objective of finding out how to exploit quantum physics in the best possible manner.
Understanding the differences between a classical and a modern quantum computer
Classical computers are the devices people have used since the 1940s like desktops, laptops, smartphones, supercomputers, and cloud servers. They are based on bits. A bit is a unit of information that powers each computation happening in a device.
Classical computers used bits. Each bit took on a value of either zero or one to represent and transmit information for computation. Developers use these bits to write programs (a set of instructions to be read and executed by computers). They have been indispensable tools but have also proved themselves to be limited in flexibility.
Modern computers can solve what classic computers cannot solve. They can make calculations but quantum calculations can only be done on modern computers offering more memory and computing power.
What does Dr. Nikolai Sinitsyn have to say further regarding the changes in quantum computing hardware?
Dr. Nikolai Sinitsyn is a theoretical physicist working at the Los Alamos National Laboratory and is also a coauthor on papers regarding Quantum Computing Paradigm in numerous journals. He believes that natural systems have precise interactions required for computation processes, and cited the example of electronic spins of defects in diamonds.
He further stated that the team was hoping to collaborate with experimental physicists soon and that too at Los Alamos. This can help them demonstrate their approach through the use of ultracold atoms.
Modern technologies using ultracold atoms are quite advanced. They help demonstrate computations using 40 to 60 qubits. According to Dr. Sinitsyn, they are enough to solve numerous problems that aren’t accessible by binary computation.
Qubits are a basic quantum information unit similar to bits in classical computing. However, it should be understood that a qubit is more advanced than a bit.
The qubits have a longer lifespan
Previously, quantum computer systems used a complicated system of logic gates. They were present among a large number of qubits sharing quantum entanglement. The new tactic will use a simple magnetic field for qubit rotation, in the same way electrons are spun in atoms.
This works like natural systems. The spin’s precise evolution indicates it has what it needs to implement the algorithm. Dr. Sinitsyn believes that such an approach can be used for solving numerous problems proposed for quantum computers.
Isn’t quantum computing an already established field?
Quantum Computing Paradigm is not an established field. It is still a new field facing limitations in connecting qubits in long strings of logic gates. It also faces issues in maintaining the required quantum entanglement for computation.
Why is entanglement necessary?
Entanglement breaks down in a process called decoherence. The entangled qubits during the process start interacting with the world beyond the quantum computer system. This brings in errors. Since all this happens quickly, the computation time is limited. The true error connection has not been implemented on quantum hardware.
What does the new approach rely on?
The new approach relies on natural entanglement over artificially induced entanglement. Hence it requires fewer connections among qubits (compared to the original amount). In turn, it reduces the decoherence’s impact. Hence the qubits live for a relatively longer time period.
What are the thoughts of the Los Alamos team?
The paper of the Los Alamos research teams exhibits their approach can solve a number-partitioning problem via Grover’s algorithm. They can do it faster than most existing quantum computer systems. The algorithm is one of the best-known quantum algorithms. It allows unorganized searches of large volumes of data sets which consume a lot of conventional computing resources.
Dr. Nikolai Sinitsyn is optimistic about the algorithm. They can be used to increase the runtime for tasks between two computers by equal means. They hence finish at the same time along with other jobs. The algorithm is quite nicely suited to quantum errors which are error-corrected. Yet it is difficult to implement it on today’s erroneous machines.
Quantum computers are protected against errors
Quantum computers are created to carry out computations quicker than any classical devices. However, they have been quite hard to realize.
A conventional quantum computer does use quantum circuits. The modus operandi of these circuits involves sequences of elementary operations using different qubit pairs. Yet, the team of theorists at Los Alamos proposed a unique alternative.
Dr. Sinitsyn noted having a quantum computer system with elementary interactions for well-known computational problems is more than enough. It uses an individual quantum spin which is realized with two qubits, and interacts with the remaining computational qubits too.
Afterward, an individual magnetic pulse working only on the central spin applies the most complex part of Grover’s algorithm. A quantum operation pointing to the desired outcome is called Grover’s Oracle.
Are any direct and time-dependent interactions needed for the process?
The central spin does not require direct interaction between computation qubits. It also does not require time-based interactions with the central spin. Once the static couplings are set between the central spin and qubits, the whole computation consists of applying simple time-dependent external field pulses. They help rotate the spins.
What else did the team discover?
Most importantly, the team proved that such kinds of operations can run quickly. They also discovered their approach is protected. Meaning their approach is strong against numerous errors in the precision of control fields and other physical parameters, without the need for quantum error correction.